Rare Printed Works from the Sadleir-Black Collection of Gothic Fiction at the Alderman Library, University of Virginia
Part 1: Matthew Lewis and Gothic Horror - Beckford to Lewis
Part 2: Matthew Lewis and Gothic Horror - MacKenzie to Zschokke
Part 3: Gothic Terror: Radcliffe and her Imitators - Boaden to Meeke
Part 4: Gothic Terror: Radcliffe and her Imitators - Pickard to Wilkinson
Part 5: Domestic and Sentimental Gothic - Bennett to Lamb
Part 6: Domestic and Sentimental Gothic - Lathom to Warner
A GOTHIC CHRONOLOGY
1717 Horace Walpole (1717-1797), fourth Earl of Orford, fourth son of Sir Robert Walpole, born. Birth of Richard West (1717-1742), writer. Birth of David Garrick (1717-1779), actor. Publication of Pope’s “Poems” and “Elegy to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady.”
1720 Birth of Giovanni Battista Piranesi (1720-1788).
1721 Sir Robert Walpole commences 21 year second term as Prime Minister and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1721-1742). Publication of “Drapier’s Letters” by Swift who also commences “Gulliver’s Travels”. Publication of “A Night-piece on Death” by Thomas Parnell, an early example of the Graveyard School of Poets.
1729 Birth of Clara Reeve (1729-1807), novelist. Birth of Edmund Burke (1729-1797), statesman and writer. First translation into English of Newton’s “Principia Mathematica”. Bach completes the “St. Matthew Passion”. John Wood builds Queen’s Square in Bath (completed 1736).
Publication of an English edition of “Histoire de Manon Lescaut” by Abbé Prévost (translated by Charlotte Smith). Official reports of Vampirism circulate in Europe.
1732 Publication of “On truths contained in popular superstitions” by Henry Mayo, describing the disinterment of a vampire. Opening of Covent Garden Theatre.
1734 “Causes célèbres” by Gayot de Pitavel commences publication. Ralph Allen spends the next 20 years building a dramatic landscape garden at Prior Park on the edge of Bath, with the advice of Alexander Pope, Capability Brown and others.
1735 Horace Walpole is admitted to King’s College, Cambridge.
1736 Birth of James Macpherson “Ossian” (1736-1796), “translator” of Gaelic poetry. Death of Nicholas Hawksmoor (1661-1736), architect.
1738 Birth of George III. Evacuation of Herculaneum. Charles Hamilton purchases Painshill and, between 1738 and 1773, transforms it into a magnificent Gothic garden with a Grotto, Turkish Tent, Ruins, Tower and other features.
1739 Beginning of Thomas Gray and Horace Walpole’s Grand Tour (1739-1741), starting with two months in Paris, three months in Rheims, and a brief spell in Geneva. They cross the Alps in November. Death of Richard Turpin (1706-1739), highwayman. Food riots in the West Country and East Anglia (1739-1740). Handel, Hogarth, Thomas Coram and others establish the Foundling Hospital in London.
1740 Birth of Donatien Alphonse, the Marquis de Sade (1740-1814). Birth of Philipp Jacques de Loutherberg (1740-1812), landscape painter and theatrical designer. Publication of “The Ruins of Rome” by John Dyer. Fielding called to the Bar. Publication of “Treatise of Human Nature” by Hume. Anson’s first voyage round the world (1740-1744). William Stukeley publishes “Stonehenge”, drawing attention to the ancient ruins on Salisbury Plain.
Gray and Walpole quarrel and their Tour ends. Walpole falls ill of quinsy and is saved by Joseph Spence, the antiquary. Whilst still in Reggio, Walpole is elected to Parliament as MP for Collington and pursues a parliamentary career until 1767 (latterly representing Castle Rising and Lynn). Birth of Henry Fuseli (1741-1825). Stourhead Garden is created by Henry Hoare II and Henry Flitcroft over the next 25 years (1741-65). Completion of publication of Samuel Richardson’s “Pamela”.
1742 Publication of “Night Thoughts” by Edward Young, an example of the Graveyard School of Poets. Publication of an expanded version of “The Dunciad” by Pope, who creates his famous sea-shell grotto at about this time. Swift committed to a lunatic asylum. Sir Robert Walpole decides to resign due to his opposition to the War with Spain and is made Earl of Orford. Handel completes the “Messiah”. Jacques Vaucanson exhibits his famous automata in London.
1743 Publication of “The Grave” by Robert Blair, another example of the Graveyard School of Poets. French explorers discover the Rocky Mountains.
1744 Death of Alexander Pope (1688-1744). Cotapaxi errupts. First recorded cricket match takes place (Kent versus All England). Bach completes “Das Wohltemperierte Klavier”.
1745 Sir Robert Walpole (1676-1745), first Earl of Orford, Leader of the Whig Party and father of Horace Walpole, dies. Death of Swift (1667-1745). Publication of “Meditations among the Tombs” another example of the Graveyard School of Poets. Completion of Edward Young’s “The Complaint, or Night Thoughts on Life, Death and Immortality” (1742-1745). Approximate date of the foundation of the “Hell-fire Club” (one of many) at Medmenham Abbey, near Marlow, by Wilkes, Sir Francis Dashwood and Bubb Dodington. The Rebellion of
Forty-Five supporting Charles Edward, the Young Pretender. Publication of the Piranesi’s imaginary prison drawings - “Invenzioni Capric di Carceri.”
1746 Birth of James Wyatt (1746-1813), Gothic architect. Horace Walpole takes an apartment within the precincts of Windsor Castle and entertains his friends there. Publication of “Odes” by William Collins. Publication of Diderot’s “Pensées Philosophiques”. After a victory at Falkirk, the Young Pretender and his forces are defeated at the Battle of Culloden. Birth of Francisco de Goya (1746-1828), artist. Publication of “L’homme machine” by Julien de La Mettrie.
1748 Publication of David Hume’s “Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding”. Completion of publication of Richardson’s “Clarissa Harlowe” (1747-1748). Publication of “Roderick Random” and “Gil Blas” by Smollett. Discovery of Pompeii.
1749 Birth of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). Publication of Hartley’s “Observations on Man”. Handel’s “Firework Music” performed and Bach completes the “Art of Fugue”. Walpole starts work on Strawberry Hill - a project that will take 20 years.
1750 Gray finishes the “Elegy in a Country Churchyard” and sends it to Walpole who circulates it in manuscript form. “The Rambler”, by Johnson, appears twice weekly (1750-1752). Death of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750). Capability Brown designs the gardens at Warwick Castle.
1751 Publication of Gray’s “Elegy in a Country Churchyard” “L’Encyclopédie” commences publication (1751-1776) under the direction of Diderot. Hogarth paints “The Four Stages of Cruelty”.
1754 Publication of Rousseau’s “Discourse on the Origin of Inequality” and Diderot’s “Pensées sur l’interprétation de la nature”. John Ivory Talbot makes alterations to Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire, in the Gothic style. Completion of publication of Richardson’s “Sir Charles Grandison” (1753-1754).
1755 Publication of Johnson’s “Dictionary of the English Language.” Lisbon is destroyed by an earthquake and 30,000 are killed.
1756 Beginning of the Seven Years’ War arising from conflicts between Britain and France, and Prussia and Austria. Birth of William Godwin (1756-1836), writer and political theorist. Tragedy of the Black Hole of Calcutta. Casanova escapes from prison in Venice. Birth of Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827), satirical artist. Birth of Mozart (1756-1791).
1757 Walpole’s “A Letter from Xo Ho”, published. Walpole founds the Strawberry Hill Press. Burke’s “A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful” published. Publication of “The Bard” by Thomas Gray. Birth of William Blake (1757-1827), visionary poet and artist. Death of David Hartley (1705-1757), philosopher. Militia Act passed enabling local forces to be raised by ballot. Food riots and Militia Act riots across the country. Battle of Plassey secures Bengal for Britain (Clive made a hero). Publication of Piranesi’s “Antichità Romana”.
1758 Walpole publishes “Royal and Noble Authors of England”, which wins considerable popularity, as well as “Fugitive Pieces in Verse and Prose”. Johnson’s “The Idler”, appears weekly (1758-1760). D’Alembert takes over direction of “L’Encyclopédie” (1751-1776) from Diderot. The return of the comet as predicted by Halley.
1759 Voltaire’s “Candide” published. Birth of Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), writer. General Wolfe dies during his assault on Quebec.
1760 Publication of “Fragments of Ancient Poetry collected in the Highlands of Scotland”, and “translated” from the Gaelic or Erse language by James Macpherson. Birth of William Beckford (1760-1844), pioneer of the gothic revival. Death of George II and accession of George III. Kedleston Hall is completed to designs by the Adam brothers (1760-1770).
1761 Death of Samuel Richardson (1689-1761). Publication of the fabulous “Carceri d’Invenzione” by Piranesi.
1762 Horace Walpole publishes his own “Anecdotes of Painting in England” (from 1762 to 1763). Publication of “Fingal” an epic in six books by James Macpherson Catherine II, “the Great”, accedes to throne in Russia following the death of Czarina Elizabeth and the assassination of Peter III and is Empress of all Russia from 1762 to 1796. George Stubbs paints the largest of his full-blooded Romantic “Horse attacked by a Lion” canvasses at about this date.
1763 End of Seven Years’ War in which Britain and Prussia gained victory over France, Spain, Austria and Russia, and Britain took control of French possessions in Canada and India. Boswell first meets Johnson. Publication of “Temora” by James Macpherson (claimed to be translations from Ossian). John Wilkes imprisoned for attacking the King and Grenville in “The North Briton”. Machine-breaking riots (1763-1765). Mozart, the child prodigy, begins to tour with his father.
1764 Horace Walpole publishes his “Castle of Otranto” on Christmas Eve in an edition of 500 copies. Supposed birth of Regina Maria Roche (1764?-1845). Mme Neckar and Mlle de Lespinasse open literary salons in Paris. Edward Gibbon embarks on his “History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” (published 1776-1778). Voltaire publishes the “Dictionnaire philosophique”. Birth of Ann Ward, later Radcliffe (1764-1823), novelist. The outbreak of quarrels between Britain and the colonists in America.
1765 Walpole visits Paris and Versailles. James Boswell meets Voltaire and Rousseau. Publication of Johnson’s edition of Shakespeare. Grenville passes the Stamp Act to help pay the costs of the Seven Years’ War, causing an outcry of “taxation without representation” in America.
1766 Food riots throughout the country. Rousseau visits London. Wallis discovers Tahiti (1767-1768) and encourages hope of southern continent. Hydrogen identified by Cavendish. Bougainville embarks on voyage to the Pacific. Robert Adam designs gothic ceiling and chimney piece for Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill. The first pavement laid in London. The Haymarket Theatre is granted a patent.
1767 Horace Walpole ends his parliamentary career. Charles Townshend. Chancellor under Chatham, enacts the Revenue Bill placing a tax on tea and many other items in the American colonies. The First Mysore War (1767-1769) in India. Publication of Priestley’s “History and Present State of Electricity”. The brothers Adam commence the remodelling of Kenwood House (1767-1769). Rousseau visits England.
1768 Publication of “Barford Abbey by Susannah Gunning. Publication of “The Mysterious Mother” by Horace Walpole, perhaps the first Gothic drama. The First Voyage of Captain James Cook on HMS Endeavour (1768-1771) with Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander serving as the expedition’s naturalists. Revolution in Geneva. Beginning of the Russo-Turkish wars (1768-1774 and 1787-1792). Foundation of the Royal Academy with Joshua Reynolds as the first President. Death of Canaletto (1697-1768), artist. Foundation of the “Encyclopaedia Britannica”.
1769 Garrick holds his Shakespeare Jubilee in Stratford-upon-Avon. Publication of “Six Weeks Tour through the Southern Counties of England and Wales” by Arthur Young. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) born. Foundations of the Wedgwood factory in Etruria. James Watt patents his steam engine.
1770 Births of the poets William Wordsworth (1770-1850) and James Hogg (1770-1835), the “Ettrick Shepherd”. Thomas Chatterton (1752-1770), poet and brilliant fraud (the fabricator of the Rowley poems and documents which are not exposed as forgeries until 1777 – including a bogus “History of Painting” sent to Horace Walpole), is reduced to despair by poverty and takes his life by imbibing arsenic poison. Publication of Goldsmith’s “The Deserted Village”. Goethe begins “Faust” (not completed until 1832). Lord North repeals the Revenue Act to pacify the colonists but institutes a Tea Duty. The Boston Massacre takes place, increasing tensions in the American colonies Birth of Beethoven (1770-1827).
1771 Birth of Walter Scott (1771-1832), novelist. Birth of Charles Brown (1771-1810), pioneer of American Gothic. The return of HMS Endeavour to England. Joseph Wright of Derby paints “The Alchemist in search of the philosopher’s stone.”
1772 Birth of Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), poet and conversationalist. Opening of the Pantheon, designed by James Wyatt as a place for balls, masquerades and popular entertainment. Publication of “Von Deutscher Baukunst” by Goethe. Publication of “Tour in Scotland” by Thomas Pennant. Widespread food riots. The Second Voyage of Captain Cook begins (1772-1775) aboard the HMS Resolution. Kew Gardens founded by King George III under the direction of Joseph Banks. Samuel Adams forms Massachusetts Committees of Correspondence to spread political ideas. Rutherford and Priestley discover nitrogen.
1773 Publication of “Götz von Berlichingen” by Goethe. Warren Hastings made Governor-General of India and English law introduced to India. The Boston Tea-Party causes the Port of Boston to be closed.
1774 Publication of Goethe’s “The Sorrows of Young Werther”. Publication of “Varbeck” by Baculard d’Arnaud. America’s First Congress meets in Philadelphia and the Declaration of Rights is issued. Antoine Lavoisier explains the composition of air. Birth of Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), artist. Joseph Wright of Derby paints “The Old Man and Death.” Establishment of the first Unitarian Chapel in London. Death of Louis XV. Rules of cricket formalized. The folly garden at the Desert de Retz, near Paris, is built (1774-1789).
1775 Birth of Matthew Gregory “Monk” Lewis (1775-1818), gothic novelist. Birth of Jane Austen (1775-1817). Birth of Charles Lamb (1775-1834), writer. Goethe accepts invitation by the Duke of Weimar to attend his court. First performance of “Le Barbier de Séville” by Beaumarchais in France causes uproar. Publication of “Sturm und Drang” by Klinger, concerning the American Revolution. The Battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill marks the beginning of the American War of Independence (1775-1783). The return of HMS Resolution to England and the display of pictures and engravings of the southern hemisphere arouse much popular interest. Birth of Joseph Turner (1775-1851), artist. James Watt improves his steam engine. Priestley discovers Hydrochloric and Sulphuric acids.
1775 Publication of first volume of Gibbon’s “History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire” and Adam Smith’s “An Enquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations”.
1776 James Wyatt is appointed surveyor at Westminster Abbey.
Birth of E T A Hoffman (1776-1822), composer/artist/author. (cont) Death of David Hume (1711-1776), philosopher. Completion of “L’Encyclopédie” under the direction of Diderot (from 1751 to 1758) and D’Alembert (1758 to 1776). “Hamlet” becomes the first Shakespearean play to be performed on the German stage, by Schröder. Birth of Jane Porter (1776-1850), novelist. Publication of Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” and the beginning of his pamphlet series (1776-1783) on “The Crisis”. Publication of “Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty” by Richard Price. The British forces are evicted from Boston and, on the fourth of July, Congress issues the “Declaration of Independence”. British forces regain control of Canada and Howe takes New York and Rhode Island. Captain Cook commences third voyage with HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery (1776-1780). Adam Weishaupt founds the Order of the Illuminati in Ingolstadt.
1777 Thomas Tyrwhitt exposes the fraud concerning Chatterton’s “Rowley” poems, increasing the interest in them and resulting in their publication a year later. The Marquis de Sade is committed to prison by his mother-in-law. The British defeat the American colonists at the Battle of Brandywine, but Burgoyne’s troops are forced to surrender by the colonists at Saratoga. Mad Jack Fuller inherits the family estate in Brightling, Sussex and starts building a series of follies.
1778 Publication of “The Old English Baron” by Clara Reeve. Publication of final volume of Gibbon’s “History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire”. Publication of “Evelina” by Fanny Burney. Publication of Rowley poems by Thomas Chatterton. Publication of a guide to the Lake District by Thomas West. William Blake studies at Royal Academy. Deaths of Voltaire (1694-1778) and Rousseau (1712-1778). Passing of the Roman Catholic Relief Bill, permitting Catholic worship, provokes Protestant fury in England. France formed an alliance with America against England. Lord North passes the Reconciliation Act granting all of the colonists demands except independence. Joseph Banks becomes President of the Royal Society (1778-1820). Death of Giambattista Piranesi (1720-1778), artist. Opening of La Scala, Milan. Franz Mesmer practices mesmerism in Paris.
1779 Publication of “Olney Hymns” by Cowper. Captain James Cook (1728-1779) killed by natives of the Sandwich Islands. Death of Thomas Chippendale (1719-1779), cabinet-maker.
1780 Birth of Charles Maturin (1780-1824). Publication of “The Nun” by Diderot. Publication of Beckford’s “Biographical Memoirs of Extraordinary Painters.” Robert Raikes founds the Sunday School Movement. The Gordon Riots, in protest against the Roman Catholic Relief Act of 1778, shocked London. Return of HMS Discovery and Resolution to England.
1781 Henry Fuseli (1741-1825) completes “The Nightmare.” Publication of “The Robbers” by Schiller. Beckford hosts extraordinary parties at Fonthill, recreating ancient Egypt and constructing labyrinths and spectacular effects. Publication of the “Confessions” by Rousseau. The infamous massacre on the Zong - over 100 slaves are thrown overboard to their death so that the ship’s owners could make an insurance claim. Cornwallis defeats the American colonists at the Battle of Guildford, but is then forced to surrender at Yorktown and the American colonies are victorious. Herschel discovers Uranus.
1782 Publication of “Cecilia” by Fanny Burney. Publication of “Poems” and “John Gilpin” by Cowper. Publication of Joseph Warton’s “Essay on the Genius and Writing of Mr Pope” is completed (1756-1782). Death of Richard Wilson (1714-1782), artist.
1783 Publication of “The Recess” by Sophia Lee. William Blake’s “Poetical Sketches” published. “The Village” by Crabbe is published. Publication of “Dreams, Waking Thoughts and Incidents from various parts of Europe” by William Beckford. Publication of “The History of Sandford and Merton” by Thomas Day. Election of the 25 year old William Pitt the Younger who serves as Prime Minister for 18 years until 1801. The Treaty of Versailles is signed between America, Britain, France and Spain, formally ending the American War of Independence (1775-1783) and restoring Florida and Minorca to Spain. First human flight in hot air balloon by the Montgolfier brothers. Death of Lancelot (Capability) Brown (1715-1783).
1784 The Marquis de Sade writes “Les 120 Journées de Sodome” (published in 1931). Death of Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), at his house in Bolt Court, not long after his quarrel with Mrs Thrale following her marriage to Gabriel Piozzi. Death of Denis Diderot (1713-1784) philosopher. “Le Marriage de Figaro” by Beaumarchais performed. Pitt’s India Bill is passed. Revolution in the Netherlands (1784-1787). Peace Treaty concluded with Tippoo Sahib of Mysore. East India Company taken under government control. Rowlandson’s first cartoons appear. First balloon flight in England. Brighton Pavilion is built for the Prince of Wales.
1785 Birth of Thomas Love Peacock (1785-1866), satirical writer. Birth of Thomas DeQuincey (1785-1859), writer and opium eater. Publication of Boswell’s “Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides”. Publication of “The Task” by Cowper. First publication of “The Daily Universal Register” (renamed “The Times” in 1788). Thomas Warton’s edition of Milton is published. Publication of “Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect” by Burns. Publication of “The Newspaper” by Crabbe. Warren Hastings resigns as Governor-General of India and returns home. Matthew Boulton and James Watt install a rotary steam engine in a cloth factory in Papplewick, Nottinghamshire. The power loom is patented. David paints “The Oath of the Horatii”.
1786 Publication of “The History of Caliph Vathek, an Arabian Tale, from an Unpublished Manuscript” (1786-1787) by William Beckford, pioneer “gothic” novel describing grotesque and terrible events in an oriental setting. Publication of “Poems chiefly in the Scottish Dialect” by Robert Burns. Death of Frederick the Great. First performance of Mozart’s “Marriage of Figaro”. Goethe visits Italy (1786-1788). Birth of William Grimm (1786-1859), German folklorist.
1787 Publication of French editions of “Vathek”, by William Beckford, in Lausanne and Paris. Publication of “Thoughts on the Education of Daughters” by Mary Wollstonecraft. Publication of “Don Carlos” by Schiller. Ann Ward marries William Radcliffe in Bath. Beilby Porteus is made Bishop of London and leads the Evangelical Revival within the Church of England with the support of the poet, Hannah More, and William Wilberforce. Thomas Paine returns to England from America. The Philadelphia Convention meets to frame a new constitution for America, which is duly agreed and signed. Revolution in Netherlands put down but new revolution in Austrian Netherlands (Belgium)(1787-1790) breaks out. The Parliament of Paris demands that the Estates-General should meet, but Louis XVI proposes to postpone this until 1792. Captain Bligh embarks on the voyage of HMS Bounty to undertake agricultural research for Joseph Banks, (from 1787 to 1789). Mont Blanc climbed by Horace de Saussure. Publication of Lavoisier’s “Méthode de nomenclature chimique”. Foundation of the Marylebone Cricket Club, who move to Lord’s Cricket Ground. Mozart completes “Don Giovanni” and “Eine Kleine Nachtmusik”.
1788 Publication of “Emmeline” by Charlotte Smith and “The Castle of Mowbray” by M Harley. Birth of George Gordon, Lord Byron (1788-1824). Trial of Warren Hastings begins, prosecuted by Burke, Fox and Sheridan. Publication of Kant’s “Critique of Practical Reason”. Publication of Goethe’s “Egmont”. Goethe and Schiller become close friends. The Royal Society of Edinburgh discuss German Theatre, sparking an interest in Gothic Drama. George III’s first mental breakdown and the Regency Crisis. The Abolition of the Slave Trade is discussed in Parliament. Parliament of Paris submits list of grievances to Louis XVI who recalls Jacques Neckar as Minister of Finance and calls States-General for May 1789. Mozart completes his last three symphonies – 39, 40 and 41 (Jupiter) – in a 46-day creative burst. Convicts are sent from Britain to Australia. Hortensia and Fuschia plants imported from Peru.
1789 Publication of “The Castles of Athlin and Dunblayne” by Ann Radcliffe, “Zeluco” by John Moore, and “Ethelinde” by Charlotte Smith. Outbreak of the French Revolution and the storming of the Bastille. Drafting of the “Declaration des Droits de L’Homme et du Citoyen”. George Washington is inaugurated as the first President of the United States of America (serves from 1789 to 1796). Publication of Bentham’s “Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation”. The first steam-driven cotton factory operational in Manchester. William Blake publishes his own “Songs of Innocence”. Death of Baron d’Holbach (1723-1789), philosopher. Publication of “The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne” by Gilbert White. Publication of “The Botanic Garden” by Erasmus Darwin (completed 1791). Publication of “Mountains and Lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland” by William Gilpin. Opening of the Thames and Severn canal. The Mutiny on the Bounty takes place. Charles Burney completes his “History of Music”. The building of Edinburgh University commences, following the designs of Robert Adam. Birth of John Martin (1789-1854), visionary artist. Chrysanthemums are introduced from China.
1790 Publication of “A Sicilian Romance” by Ann Radcliffe. Publication of Edmund Burke’s “Reflections on the Revolution in France” - it sells 17,000 copies in 3 months. Wordsworth enjoys Grand Tour of the Alps. Publication of “Tam O’Shanter” by Robert Burns. Kant’s “Critique of Judgement” published. Publication of “Horae Paulinae” by William Paley. The Firth-Clyde canal is completed and the Oxford-Birmingham canal starts. Revolution in Belgium put down. Short-lived revolution in Hungary. Foundation of Washington DC. Birth of Géricault (1790-1824), artist. Foundation of the Royal Literary Fund. Publication of “Travels to Discover the Sources of the Nile, 1768-1773” by James Bruce. Vancouver explores the North-West coast of America. Mozart’s “Cosi Fan Tutti” performed.
1791 Publication of “The Romance of the Forest” by Ann Radcliffe. Publication of “The School for Widows” by Clara Reeve. Publication of “Justine; or, The Misfortunes of Virtue” by the Marquis de Sade. Publication of Boswell’s “Life of Johnson”. Wordsworth gains B.A. and travels to France to learn French. Death of John Wesley (1703-1791), theologian. Priestley’s house is wrecked by anti-revolutionaries. Paine’s “Rights of Man” published in answer to Burke’s “Reflections” of 1790. Goethe made director of the Duke of Weimar’s Theatre (1791-1813). The Society of United Irishmen founded to encourage France to invade Ireland and set up an independent republic. Mirabeau elected President of the French Assembly. The Canada Act passed. Revolution in Poland (1791-1794). Slave uprising in Haiti and rise to power of Toussaint L’Ouverture. “The Observer” newspaper is founded First performance of Mozart’s “Magic Flute”. Death of Mozart (1756-1791).
1792 Matthew Lewis visits Goethe in Weimar. Birth of Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822). Publication of “Vancenza” by Mary Robinson. Publication of the “Vindication of the Rights of Woman” by Mary Wollstonecraft. Publication of Holcroft’s “The Road to Ruin”, perhaps the earliest English melodrama. Publication of “Evidences of Christianity” by William “Pigeon” Paley. Burke publishes “Thoughts on French Affairs” and causes a sensation by throwing a dagger onto the floor of the House of Commons. Paine completes publication of his “Rights of Man” (1791-1792) and is forced to flee to France to avoid prosecution. Paine is elected a member of the French Convention. Paine’s “Age of Reason” published. Death of Richard Arkwright (1737-1792), inventor of the spinning frame. The National Convention meets and declares France a Republic. The Paris communes are set up. Jacobins under Danton seize power from the Girondins. The September Massacre of royalists in Paris. French pass decree offering to help other revolutionaries to overthrow monarchies. Denmark is the first nation to abolish the slave trade.
1793 Publication of “The Castle of Wolfenbach” by Eliza Parsons. Publication of “The Old Manor House” by Charlotte Smith. The Reign of Terror begins in Pairs. Louis XVI and the French royal family are executed. Napoleon returns to Paris. Outbreak of war between Britain and France (1793-1797). Death of Marat. Paoli’s second revolt in Corsica against French government is crushed by Napoleon. Revolution in Sardinia. Publication of “Village Politics” by Hannah More and “Enquiry Concerning Political Justice” by William Godwin. Flaxman completes his illustrations to the “Iliad” and “Odyssey”. Jacques Louis David paints “The Death of Marat”. Death of Guardi (1712-1793), artist.
1794 Publication of “The Mysteries of Udolpho” by Ann Radcliffe. Matthew Lewis writes “The Monk” whilst serving at the British Embassy in the Hague. Publication of “Abaellino” by Zschokke. Publication of “Fontainville Forest” a play by James Boaden. Publication of “Madeline; or, the Castle of Montgomery” by Isabella Kelly. William Blake publishes his own “Songs of Experience”. Publication of “Caleb Williams” by Godwin. Publication of “Auld Lang Syne” by Robert Burns. Publication of “Zoonomia” by Erasmus Darwin. William Henry Ireland perpetrates his Shakespeare forgeries. Publication of “Essay on the Picturesque” by Sir Uvedale Price. James Wyatt completes the Radcliffe Observatory in Oxford. Habeas Corpus suspended. John Thelwall and Horne Tooke acquitted at treason trials. “Crimp house” riots against recruiting. Revolution in Poland put down. Paris commune abolished. Danton, Desmoulins, Robespierre and St. Just all executed as is Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794), scientist. Slavery abolished in French colonies. First telegraph line operational from Paris to Lille. The third Drury Lane Theatre opens under the management of John Philip Kemble.
1795 Publication of “The Dagger” by Carl Grosse. Publication of “Netley Abbey” by Richard Warner. Publication of “Count St Blancard” by Mary Meeke. Publication of “A Journey: Holland, Germany, Lake District” by Ann Radcliffe. Publication of “Poems” by Southey. Birth of John Keats (1795-1821), poet. Lamb suffers bout of madness. Acquittal of Warren Hastings. Treason and Sedition Acts passed. Britain declares war against Dutch and Spain declares was against Britain. Britain takes the Cape of Good Hope. Food riots and attack on the King’s coach in London. Bread riots and White Terror in Paris. Napoleon made Commander-in-Chief of French forces in Italy. Mungo Park (1777-1806) explores the Niger. Haydn’s London Symphonies performed. The Pump-room in Bath is rebuilt. Birth of Charles Barry (1795-1860), architect. Sir John Soane begins work on the Bank of England (completed by 1827). Death of Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795), manufacturer.
1796 Publication of “The Monk” by Matthew Gregory Lewis. Publication of “The Mysterious Warning” by Eliza Parsons. Publication of “Horrid Mysteries” by Carl Grosse. Publication of “The Haunted Cavern” by John Palmer, Junior. Jean Paul uses the term ‘Doppelgänger’ in his “Siebenkäs.” Publication of “Modern Novel Writing; or, The Elegant Enthusiast” by William Beckford. Death of Robert Burns (1759-1796), poet. Death of James Macpherson (1736-1796), “translator” of Ossian. Mary Lamb murders her mother in fit of madness. Publication of “Thoughts on the Prospect of a Regicide Peace” by Burke. Publication of “Pauliska, ou la perversité moderne” by Reveroni Saint-Cyr. Widespread food riots. Failure of French expedition to Ireland due to the weather. Napoleon marries Josephine de Beauharnais. Sardinian Revolution quelled. Britain captures Elba. Smallpox vaccine introduced by Jenner. Work begins on Beckford’s Fonthill Abbey.
1797 Publication of “The Italian” by Ann Radcliffe, earning her £800. Death of Horace Walpole (1717-1797). First performance “The Castle Spectre” by Matthew Lewis (borrowing freely from Schiller and Kotzebue) at Drury Lane. It becomes an instant success and continues to be regularly performed in Britain and America until 1834. Godwin marries Mary Wollstonecraft, who dies later in the year giving birth to Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (the future Mary Shelley) (1797-1851). Publication of “The Italian Monk” a play by James Boaden. Deaths of Edmund Burke (1729-1797), statesman, and John Wilkes (1727-1797), radical politician. Publication of “Azemia” by William Beckford. Publication of “The Enquirer” by Godwin. Coleridge writes “Kubla Khan”, interrupted by the man from Porlock (published 1816). Publication of Goethe’s “Hermann and Dorothea” and “Braut von Corinth” - a vampire story. London Corresponding Society has its last mass meeting broken up by the police. Suppression of mutinies in the English fleet. Nelson and Jervis defeat Spanish fleet off Cape St. Vincent. Napoleon completes victorious campaign in Italy and returns to Paris in triumph. George Washington refuses to accept a third term and is succeeded by John Adams (President 1797-1801). Death of Joseph Wright of Derby (1734-1797), artist. Thomas Bewick’s “British Birds” first appear (continues to 1804).
1798 Publication of a greatly altered 4th edition of “The Monk” by Matthew Gregory Lewis. Publication of “The Midnight Bell” by Francis Lathom. Publication of “The Orphan of the Rhine” by Eleanor Sleath. Publication of “Wieland” by Charles Brown. Publication of “Clermont. A Tale” by Regina Maria Roche. Publication of “Lyrical Ballads” by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Wordsworth writes “Lines composed a few miles above Tintern Abbey.” Publication of “The Castaway” by Cowper. Publication of “Gebir” by Landor. Publication of “Essay on the Principles of of Population” by Malthus. The War with France followed by the First War against Napoleon (1798-1802). Nelson destroys the French fleet at the Battle of the Nile following successful French invasion of North Africa, but Napoleon defeats British and Turks at Aboukir. French capture Rome and declare a Roman Republic. The Irish Rebellion fails. Birth of Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863), artist. Death of Casanova (1725-1798), amorous adventurer.
1799 Publication of “Edgar Huntly” by Charles Brown. Publication of “The Abbess” by W H Ireland. Publication of “The Valley of St Gothard” by Eliza Parsons. First performance of “Rolla: The Peruvian Hero” by Matthew Lewis. Publication of “St Leon” by William Godwin. Wordsworth moves to Dove Cottage, Grasmere. Publication of “Wallenstein” by Schiller, translated by Coleridge in 1800. London Corresponding Society and United Societies banned. Combination Act passed to prevent unionisation of workers. Napoleon invades Syria and defeats Turks at Abukir, then returns to France and overthrows the Directory. Pitt introduces Income Tax to pay for the war with France. The Church Missionary Society founded. Britain wins war against Tippoo Sahib in India. Beethoven completes his first symphony. The Rosetta Stone is found. Death of George Washington (1732-1799). David paints “Rape of the Sabine Women”. Goya finishes “Los Caprichos” - including his drawing of “The sleep of reason brings forth monsters.”
1800 First English publication of “Wake not the Dead” - a vampire story by Johann Ludwig Tieck. Publication of “Le Cimetière de la Madeleine” by J F Regnault-Warin. Deaths of William Cowper (1731-1800), poet, and Elizabeth Montagu (1720-1800), conversationalist, writer and Queen of the Blue-Stockings. “Castle Rackrent” by Maria Edgeworth published. “Epistle to Peter Pindar” by Gifford published. Publication of “Translations from Anacreon” by Moore. Publication of “Maria Stuart” by Schiller. Napoleon defeats Austrians at the Battle of Marengo and the Turks at Heliopolis. Napoleon made First Consul. Pitt enacts the Act of Union of Great Britain and Ireland. Robert Owen starts new industrial society in New Lanark. Richard Trevithick builds first high-pressure steam engine. Alessandro Volta announces his invention (made in 1799) of the electric cell battery.
1801 Publication of “Ancient Records” by T J Horsley Curties, and “Ruthinglenne” by Isabella Kelly. Publication of “Tales of Wonder” assembled by Scott and Lewis. Publication of “Thalaba the Destroyer” by Southey. Jane Austen and family move to Bath. Lord Byron enters Harrow (1801-1805). Coleridge becomes an opium addict. Britain liberates Egypt from the French. Slave uprising in Haiti finally succeeds in driving out Spanish, but the French seize the island instead. Death of Count Carl Graf von Zeppelin (1767-1801), German minister of state. Union Jack becomes British flag. Thomas Jefferson succeeds John Adams as America’s third President (serves 1801-1809). Beethoven’s “Piano Sonatas” appear (1801-1804). The “Nautilus” submarine launched.
1802 Publication of “Astonishment!!!” by Francis Lathom, “Midnight Weddings” by Mary Meeke, and “Who’s the Murderer?” by Eleanor Sleath. First performance of “Alfonso, King of Castile” by Matthew Lewis. Napoleon made First Consul for life and made President of the Italian Republic. Peace of Amiens concludes First War of Britain against Napoleon. Beethoven writes his second symphony. John Dalton pioneers atomic theory in chemistry.
1803 Publication of “Edgar Huntly” by Charles Brown, “The Cave of Cosenza” by Eliza Bromley, St Clair of the Isles” by Elizabeth Helme, and “Don Raphael” by George Walker. First performance of “The Harper’s Daughter” by Matthew Lewis. DeQuincey attends Worcester College, Oxford, and begins to take opium. Maria Edgeworth becomes a literary celebrity in London. Godwin’s “Life of Chaucer” is published. Birth of Edward George Earle Bulwer-Lytton (1803-1873). Sir Arthur Wellesley ends war against Mahrattas in India by victory at Assaye. Invention of the bombshell by Henry Shrapnell.
1804 Birth of Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), author. Death of William Gilpin (1724-1804), pioneer of picturesque descriptive writing. Publication of the “History of British Birds” by Thomas Bewick, incorporating scenes of poverty and everyday life. Death of Charlotte Lennox (1720-1804), novelist and translator. Publication of “Wilhelm Tell” by Schiller. Death of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), philosopher. The British and Foreign Bible Society is founded. Napoleon crowned Emperor. Pitt returns as Prime Minister for a further two years (1804-1806) until his death. Revolution in Serbia. Dahlias introduced into British gardens.
1805 First performance of “Rugantino” by Matthew Lewis. Wordsworth finishes first draft of “The Prelude”. Scott’s “Lay of the Last Minstrel” published. Publication of “Palmyra, and Other Poems” by Thomas Love Peacock. Publication of “The Bravo of Venice” translated by Matthew Lewis from the German of Zschokke. Death of William Paley (1743-1805), theologian. Death of Schiller (1759-1805), poet and dramatist. Birth of William Harrison Ainsworth (1805-1882), author. Walter Scott purchases what will become his Gothic mansion at Abbotsford. Nelson mortally wounded in victory of British fleet against the French at Trafalgar. Austrian and Russian armies defeated by Napoleon at Austerlitz. Treaty of St Petersburg by Austria, Britain and Russia against France. Mungo Park explores the Niger. Turner paints the “Shipwreck”. Beethoven’s “Fidelio” first performed. Paganini tours Europe.
1806 Publication of “Zofloya; or, the Moor” by Charlotte Dacre. Publication of “Feudal Tyrants” translated by Matthew Lewis from the German. Publication of “St Botolph’s Priory” by T J Horsley Curties. Publication of “Vicissitudes Abroad” by Agnes Bennett. Publication of Byron’s “Fugitive Pieces”, immediately suppressed. Publication of Moore’s “Epistles, Odes and Other Poems”. Death of Mungo Park (1771-1806), explorer. Death of Charles James Fox (1749-1806), politician. Death of William Pitt (1759-1806), Prime Minister. Napoleon defeats Prussians at Jena. The Holy Roman Empire collapses. Napoleon enters Berlin and issues edict prohibiting British vessels from entering European ports.
1807 Publication of “Fatal Revenge” by Charles Maturin. First performance of “The Wood Daemon” by Matthew Lewis. Publication of “The Monk of Udolpho” by T J Horsley Curties. Death of Clara Reeve (1729-1807), novelist. First performance of “Adelgitha; or, The Fruit of a Single Error” by Matthew Lewis. Wordsworth writes his “Odes on Intimations of Immortality”. Publication of Crabbe’s “Poems”. Scott visits London and becomes a literary celebrity. Publication of Lamb’s “Tales from Shakespeare”. Moore’s Irish Melodies” (1807-1834) begin to appear. Publication of Hegel’s “Phenomenology of Spirit”. Abolition of the Slave Trade by Act of Parliament. Napoleon defeats Russian armies at Eylau. Gas lighting appears in London streets
1808 Publication of “The Wild Irish Boy” by Charles Maturin. “The Examiner” (1808-1880) launched by John Hunt and his brother Leigh Hunt. Publication of “Coelebs in Search of a Wife” by Hannah More. Covent Garden Theatre burns down causing death of 23 firemen and loss of manuscript scores by Handel. A new 3,000 seater building is constructed offering 40% more space. Manchester Cotton-weavers strike. Goethe meets Napoleon in Erfurt. Napoleon invades Spain and installs his brother, Joseph, as King of Spain. The Peninsular War (1808-1814) begins. Wellesley has initial victories against French at Roliça and Vimiero aided by popular revolution in Spain. Beethoven’s Fifth and Sixth symphonies completed. The source of the Ganges is discovered. Excavations commence at Pompeii (1808-1815). Dalton publishes his “New System of Chemical Philosophy” (completed in 1827).
1809 Publication of “Manfrone” by Mary Ann Radcliffe. The Maturin family is plunged into poverty by a charge of embezzlement. Births of Alfred Tennyson (1809-1892), poet, Charles Darwin (1809-1882), naturalist, and Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849), pioneer of horror, detective and science fiction. Jane Austen and family move to Chawton. Foundation of “The Quarterly Review”. Publication of “Rip van Winkle” by Washington Irving. Death of Thomas Paine (1737-1809), radical. Covent Garden Theatre re-opens with increased prices, leading to O.P. (Old Price) riots. Drury Lane burns down. Grimaldi and other pantomime performers appear on English Stage. Spencer Perceval succeeds the Duke of Portland as Prime Minister and serves for 3 years until his assassination. British driven from Spain, but troops able to embark due to victory at Corunna. Wellesley returns to Peninsular and has great victory at Talavera. Wellesley created Viscount Wellington. Napoleon defeats Austrians at Wagram. Napoleon and Josephine are divorced. Short-lived rebellion in the Tyrol. Metternich becomes chief minister of Austria. James Madison succeeds Jefferson as America’s fourth President (1809-1817). Beethoven’s “Emperor Concerto” completed.
1810 Publication of “Zastrozzi, a Romance” by P B Shelley. Publication of “The Houses of Osma and Almeria” by Regina Maria Roche. Publication of “Forest of Montalbano” by Catherine Cuthbertson. Publication of Scott’s “Lady of the Lake”. George III falls insane once more. Durham Miners Strike. Wellington defeats French at Masséna in Portugal. Venezuela proclaims its independence. Beethoven composes music to accompany Goethe’s “Egmont”. Goya starts his “Disasters of War” (1810-1813). Caspar David Friedrich paints “The Abbey in the Oak Woods.”
1811 Publication of “St Irvyne; or, The Rosicrucion” by P B Shelley. Publication of “Wieland” by Charles Brown. First performance of “Timour the Tartar” by Matthew Lewis. Publication of Jane Austen’s “Sense and Sensibility”. Shelley sent down from Oxford after publication of “The Necessity of Atheism”. Shelley marries Harriet Westbrook. Godwin meets Shelley. Keats takes apprenticeship to a surgeon. George III declared insane and Prince of Wales becomes Regent. Luddite machine-breaking riots in England.
1812 Publication of “Poems” by Matthew Lewis. Publication of “The Milesian Chief” by Charles Maturin. Publication of first two cantos of Byron’s “Childe Harold” and his intrigue with Lady Caroline Lamb. Publication of “Tales” by Crabbe. Scott moves to Abbotsford. Publication of “The Tour by Dr. Syntax in Search of the Picturesque” (1812-1821) by William Combe. Wellington defeats French at Salamanca and enters Madrid. Napoleon invades Russia, wins battle of Borodino, enters Moscow, but is then forced to begin perilous retreat. The first steam vessel, “The Comet” sails on the Clyde. Luddite riots continue in Yorkshire and Lancashire. America declares war on Britain. Beethoven and Goethe meet. Beethoven completes his Seventh and Eighth symphonies. The Elgin marbles brought to Britain. Publication of “Fairy Tales” by the Brothers Grimm. Death of Philipp Jacques de Loutherberg (1740-1812), landscape painter and theatrical designer who influentially portrayed ‘the sublime’ for country houses and for Drury Lane. The fourth Drury Lane theatre is opened.
1813 Publication of “The Monastery of St Columb” by Regina Maria Roche. Publication of Jane Austen’s “Pride and Prejudice”. Publication of “Queen Mab” by Shelley. Publication of Robert Owen’s “New View of Society”. Wellington drives French from Spain and invades France. Napoleon defeated by Coalition of Allies at the “Battle of the Nations” in Leipzig. French expelled from Holland. Simon Bolivar becomes Dictator of Venezuela.
1814 Death of Donatien Alphonse, the Marquis de Sade (1740-1814). Birth of Sheridan Le Fanu (1814-1873), one of the creators of the ghost story and author of “Carmilla” (1872), a vampire story. Death of James Wyatt (1746-1813), Gothic architect. Publication of “Mansfield Park” by Jane Austen. “New Monthly Magazine” (1814-1884) appears. Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Godwin fall in love and go to Switzerland. Publication of “Waverley” anonymously by Scott. Publication of “The Corsair” by Byron. Wordsworth writes “The Excursion”. Napoleon abdicates following the First Treaty of Paris and is sent to Elba. Louis XVIII returns as King of France. British forces defeated by Americans at Chippewa, but raze Washington DC and burn the Library of Congress. Birth of Millet (1814-1875). Ingres paints L’Odalisque”.
1815 Matthew Lewis instgates slave reforms on his Jamaican plantations. Publication of “Emma” by Jane Austen. Corn Laws passed in Britain. Napoleon escapes from Elba, gains support of French army and marches on Paris. Finally defeated at Waterloo by Wellington, Blücher and allied forces and is exiled to St. Helena. British forces defeated at New Orleans. Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812 between Britain and America. John Nash remodels Brighton Pavilion in an exotic oriental style. Goya starts his drawings entitled “Los Proverbios.” Caspar David Friedrich paints “The Wanderer looking over a sea of fog.”
1816 The famous writing contest at the Villa Diodati on the shores of Lake Geneva takes place between the 15th and 17th of June, with Lord Byron, Percy Shelley, Mary Shelley and John Polidori taking part. “Frankenstein” and “The Vampyre” are created. Publication of “Headlong Hall” by Thomas Love Peacock. First performance of “Bertram; or, The Castle of Adolbrand” by Charles Maturin. Birth of Charlotte Brontë (1816-1855), novelist. Scandal causes Byron and his wife to separate and Byron leaves England for good. Percy Bysshe Shelley and Mary Godwin marry. Byron meets the Shelleys’ in Switzerland. “The Story of Rimini” by Leigh Hunt published. Coleridge’s “Kubla Khan” published. Jane Austen’s “Emma” published.
1817 Death of Jane Austen (1775-1817). Publication of Coleridge’s “Biographia Literaria”. Publication of “Ormond” by Maria Edgeworth. Publication of “Poems” by Keats, encouraged by Shelley. Publication of “Lalla Rookh” by Moore. Publication of “Melincourt” by Thomas Love Peacock. “Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine” launched. “The Scotsman” newspaper launched in Edinburgh. Publication of Byron’s “Manfred”. Publication of Ricardo’s “Principles of Political Economy and Taxation”. J G Lockhart meets Goethe in Germany and translates Schlegel’s “History of Literature.” Attack on the Prince Regent’s coach in London. James Monroe succeeds Madison as America’s fifth President (1817-1825).
1818 Publication of “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley. Publication of “Northanger Abbey” and “Persuasion” by Jane Austen. Thomas Love Peacock’s “Rhododaphne” and “Nightmare Abbey” are published. Death of Matthew Gregory “Monk” Lewis (1775-1818), gothic novelist. The Shelleys’ leave England for Italy (completed in 1823). Byron commences “Don Juan” in Italy. Birth of Karl Marx (1818-1883). Publication of “Heart of Midlothian” and “Rob Roy” by Scott. Publication of “Mandeville” by Godwin. Death of Keats’ younger brother Tom. Publication of “Endymion” by Keats, savaged in “Blackwood’s Magazine” and “The Examiner”. Keats commences “Hyperion”. Passing of the Church Building Act, resulting in the building of nearly 200 Gothic churches in England before 1837. Chile proclaims independence. The Prado founded in Madrid. Crossing of the Atlantic by the “Savannah” in 26 days.
1819 Publication of “The Vampyre” by John Polidori. Publication of “The Cenci” by Shelley. Keats starts “The Eve of St Agnes” and finishes “La Belle Dame sans Merci”. Keats works on his odes “On Melancholy”, “To Autumn”, “To a Nightingale”, “On a Grecian Urn”, “On Indolence” and “To Psyche”. Keats falls in love with Fanny Brawne. Publication of “Human Life” by Samuel Rogers. Publication of “The Battle of Marathon” by Elizabeth Barratt. Birth of John Ruskin (1819-1900), critic, artist and writer. The Peterloo massacre occurs in Manchester. British settlement established in Singapore. Macadam introduces “tarmacadamized” roads. Death of James Watt (1736-1819), inventor. Birth of Princess Victoria and Prince Albert. Géricault paints “The Raft of the Medusa”. Turner paints “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage”. Goya paints the “Black Paintings” including “Saturn devouring his children.”
1820 Publication of “Melmoth the Wanderer” by Charles Maturin. Publication of “Prometheus Unbound” by Shelley. Publication of “Ivanhoe” by Scott. Performance of “The Vampire” by James Robinson Planché. Malthus publishes “Principles of Political Economy”. Cobbett’s “Rural Rides” features in his “Political Register” from 1820 to 1830. Publication of “Lamia and other poems” by Keats who has now grown seriously ill. Keats sails for Italy. Lamb’s “Essays of Elia” appear in “London Magazine” (1820-1825). Death of George III and accession of George IV. The Cato Street Conspiracy plots to assassinate the Cabinet. Publication of “Ruslan and Ludmila” by Pushkin. Death of Joseph Banks (1743-1820), explorer and botanist. Death of Arthur Young (1741-1820), agricultural economist. The Venus de Milo discovered. Hector Berlioz’s “Symphonie Fantastique” is performed. The Haymarket Theatre is rebuilt under the management of George Colman.
1821 Death of Keats (1795-1821) in Italy, mourned by Shelley. Clare’s “The Village Minstrel and Other Poems” published. Publication of “Confessions of an English Opium-Eater” by DeQuincey. Publication of “Kenilworth” by Scott, who becomes a baronet. Publication of “Table Talk” by Hazlitt. Foundation of the “Manchester Guardian”. Death of Napoleon (1769-1821) in exile on the island of St. Helena. Peru, Guatemala, Panama and Santo Domingo proclaim their independence. Beginning of the National Rising in Greece (1821-1827) against the Turks. Constable paints “The Haywain” which wins a gold medal at the Paris Salon of 1824. John Martin paints “Belshazzar’s Feast.”
1822 Death of E T A Hoffman (1776-1822), composer/artist/author. Appearance of “The Liberal” (1822-1823) edited by Leigh Hunt. Leigh Hunt joins Byron and Shelley in Italy. Shelley (1792-1822) drowns in they Bay of Spezia. Publication of “Italy” by Samuel Rogers. Delacroix paints “Dante and Virgil crossing the Styx”. John Martin paints “The Destruction of Herculaneum”.
1823 Death of Ann Radliffe (1764-1823), novelist. Publication of “Valperga; or, The Life and Adventures of Castruccio, Prince of Lucca” by Mary Shelley. Publication of “December Tales” - a collection of supernatural tales by Ainsworth. Bentham founds “Westminster Review”. Byron goes to Greece to aid Greek Revolution. Maria Edgeworth visits Scott at Abbotsford. Mexico declares her independence. The freedom of South American countries recognised by Britain. Babbage works on calculating machines. Rugby football is invented.
1824 Publication of “Gaston de Blondeville” by Ann Radcliffe - published posthumously. Sir Walter Scott writes an Introduction to the novels of Radcliffe and credits her with the foundation of “a class, or school.” Death of Charles Maturin (1780-1824). Publication of “The Albigenses” by Charles Maturin. Death of Lord Byron (1788-1824). Landor’s “Imaginary Conversations” (1824-1829) begin to appear. Serialization of Mary Mitford’s “Our Village” (completed in 1832). Publication of James Hogg’s “The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner”. Francis Place and Joseph Hume help to pass the new Combination Act, allowing workers to form unions. British forces savaged in the Ashanti war. War in Burma. Simon Bolivar made Emperor of Peru. Death of Géricault (1790-1824), artist. Beethoven completes his Ninth symphony.
1825 The Tower of Beckford’s Fonthill Abbey in Wiltshire collapses - his only regret is that he was not there to see it fall. Publication of “The Spirit of the Age” by Hazlitt. Publication of the diaries of Samuel Pepys. The Great Money Panic in England caused by speculations and loans. The Stockton to Darlington railway is opened. Haiti gains her independence. Bolivia and Uruguay formed. Tea roses are introduced to Britain from China.
1826 Scott is financially ruined. Publication of “The Last Man” by Mary Shelley. Publication of “Woodstock” by Scott. Publication of “Vivian Grey” by Disraeli. Publication of “The Last of the Mohicans” by James Fenimore Cooper. Death of John Flaxman (1755-1826), artist and engraver. Power-looms destroyed in riots in Lancashire. Stamford Raffles founds the Royal Zoological Society in London.
1827 Death of William Blake (1757-1827), visionary artist and poet. Publication of Clare’s “Shepherd’s Calendar Combined British, French and Russian fleets destroy the Turkish and Egyptian fleets at Navarino Bay and end the Greek War (1821-1827). Baedeker starts publishing travel guides. Death of Beethoven (1770-1827).
1828 Publication of “Pelham” by Bulwer-Lytton. Birth of Jules Verne (1828-1905). Death of Goya (1746-1828), artist.
1829 Publication of “The Misfortunes of Elphin” by Thomas Love Peacock. Death of Schlegel (1772-1829). Suttee is abolished in British India. Policemen (“Bobbies”) introduced by Sir Robert Peel. General Union of Spinners formed. Catholic Emancipation Bill passed. The Royal Zoological Society takes over the collection of animals at the Tower of London, founding London Zoo.
1830 Cobbett’s “Rural Rides” collected and published. The Second French Revolution: Charles X forced to abdicate and replaced by the Duke of Orleans.
1831 Publication of the 3rd revised edition of “Frankenstein” by Mary Shelley. Publication of “Crotchet Castle” by Thomas Love Peacock. Publication of “The Hunchback of Notre Dame” by Victor Hugo. Publication of “Thoughts on Man” by Godwin. Publication of “Poetry and Truth”, Goethe’s autobiography. The First and Second Reform Bills are passed. Charles Darwin embarks on voyage on the HMS Beagle.
1832 Deaths of Sir Walter Scott (1772-1832), and Goethe (1749-1832) (after completion of “Faust”). Harriet Martineau’s “Illustrations of Political Economy” begin to appear (1832-1834). Publication of Palmer’s “Origines Liturgicae” which becomes an important text for the Oxford Movement. The Third “Great” Reform Bill passed.
1833 Death of Hannah More (1745-1833), poet. Death of William Wilberforce (1759-1833), abolitionist, philanthropist and, together with Hannah More and Bishop Porteus, a leading member of the Evangelical Movement. Publication of Prometheus Bound” by Elizabeth Barrett. Publication of “Mortal Immortal” by Mary Shelley. Emancipation Act passed to abolish slave trade in all British colonies. The First Factory Bill passed. John Keble’s sermon on national apostasy is later said by Newman to have started the Oxford Movement. Keble’s “Tracts for the Times” begin to appear.
1834 Death of Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), poet and conversationalist. Death of Charles Lamb (1775-1834), writer. Publication of “Italy: With sketches of Spain and Portugal” by William Beckford. Posthumous publication of “Journal of a West Indian Proprietor” by Matthew Lewis.
1835 Publication of “Recollections of an Excursion to the Monasteries of Alcobaca and Batalha” by William Beckford. Publication of “Sketches by Boz” by Dickens. Caspar David Friedrich paints “The Stages of Life.” Publication of “Fairy Tales” by Hans Christian Anderson.
1836 Death of William Godwin (1756-1836), writer and political theorist. Massive reduction of the Stamp Tax on newspapers. A W N Pugin writes “Contrasts” - a key work in the later Gothic Revival.
1837 George IV dies and Queen Victoria accedes to the throne. Publication of “The Pickwick Papers” by Dickens, which shows great affinity with Gothic fiction, featuring murder, ghosts, haunted castles and the manuscript of a madman. Invention of electric telegraph.
1838 Chartist Movement founded. Publication of “Oliver Twist” by Dickens.
1839 Publication of “The Fall of the House of Usher” by Poe.
1840 Death of Fanny Burney (1752-1840), novelist. Leigh Hunt’s “A Legend of Florence” produced at Covent Garden.
1841 Publication of “The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture ” by A W N Pugin.
1842 Publication of “The Masque of the Red Death” by Poe. Publication of “Poems” by Tennyson.
1843 Publication of “The Pit and the Pendulum” by Poe. Death of Robert Southey (1774-1843), Poet Laureate. He is succeeded by William Wordsworth (from 1843 to 1850).
1844 Death of William Beckford (1760-1844).
1845 Death of Regina Maria Roche (1764?-1845).
1847 Birth of Bram Stoker (1847-1912), touring manager of Henry Irving and author of “Dracula” (1897). Publication of “Varney the Vampire” by ‘Thomas Pecket Prest.’ Publication of “Jane Eyre” by Charlotte Brontë and “Wuthering Heights” by Emily Brontë.
1848 The Year of Revolutions in Europe. Women admitted to London University. Publication of “The Tenant of Wildfell Hall” by Anne Brontë.
1850 Birth of Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), author of “The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde” (1886).
1851 Death of Mary Shelley (1797-1851). Great Exhibition.
1853 Publication of “Villette” by Charlotte Brontë.
1854 John Martin paints “The Great Day of His Wrath.”